The Puritan Revolution was the struggle between the English Parliament (actually the House of Commons, since the Lords favored the king) and the royalty that began in 1628, when Parliament imposed on Charles I the ” Petition for Rights ” by the what problems regarding taxes, arrests, trials and summons of the army could not be executed without parliamentary authorization.
Carlos I said that he accepted the imposition but did not fulfill it. When the parliamentary meeting of the following year condemned his religious policy and the increase of taxes, the king dissolved the Parliament and ruled without him during eleven years. The decisions he made during that time provoked protests throughout England.
The Puritan Revolution began in Scotland when Charles tried to impose Anglicanism on Puritans and Presbyterians (Scottish Calvinists), and soon spread out. The rebels, who refused to pay the new taxes instituted by Charles I, were convicted by the royal courts in 1639 and 1640.
In 1640, financial problems compelled the king to call Parliament; but it worked only for a month, for it was dissolved by refusing to raise taxes, as Charles I. wanted. In that same year a new Parliament was assembled, which during the eighteen months in which it worked transformed the administration of England, persecuted ministers of the king and began to control the convocation of the army and religious politics.
In 1641, the outbreak of a separatist revolt in Ireland forced the organization of an army, whose command was denied to the king. The parliamentary meeting was therefore obligatory at least every three years, and the king lost the right to dissolve it.
As early as 1641, however, Parliament was divided between some radical leaders (who wanted to expropriate the lands of ecclesiastical lords) and the aristocracy united with conservative capitalist bourgeoisie (who felt threatened by the popular movement and turned to the king. incarnation “of order and security). Taking advantage of this, Carlos I tried to regain its power, going against the parliamentary measures. Then began the Civil War, in the beginning of 1642.
The command of the parliamentary army was given to Cromwell , who revolutionized the military organization of the time, making it much more efficient. The ascent to the posts of officers happened to depend on the merit, no more of the birth. Since the people were able to participate in the revolution, the bourgeoisie, although it needed it in its struggle against the king, began to fear it, seeing that the people began to influence the course of events.
Cromwell’s army was for a time influenced by the democratic ideas of certain artisan groups, the levelers , who failed to convince him of his radical ideas. Their struggle for power favored the appearance of diggers , urban and rural proletarians who had no land. In 1649, when they took hold of land in the county of Surrey and began digging them to prove that they belonged to them, they were decimated by Cromwell’s soldiers. Similar movements appeared in other parts of England, but were all repressed.
Very disciplined, Cromwell’s army eventually became a powerful political force: it occupied cities, put the leaders of Parliament to flight, and took control of the situation. He supported the House of Commons, when it suppressed the House of Lords and had beheaded I prayed. The Civil War culminated with the implantation of the Republic, in 1649.