The term Brexit corresponds to Britain Exit – a phrase that means British Exit and that gained wide repercussion worldwide with the result of the plebiscite of the 23 of June of 2016, after the victory of the sim by 51,9% of the votes, as a result of the option of the population from the United Kingdom, mainly England, from the European Union .
Causes of Brexit
Brexit’s victory took place mainly in England and can be attributed to the wave of immigrants or refugees that has hit the European continent in recent years, coming from the Mediterranean routes and coming from North Africa and the Middle East, especially the Syrians .
The growing presence of immigrants served as the main nationalist banner of Eurosceptics and xenophobic groups for Brexit’s approval, highlighting the UKIP (UK Party for Independence) party, which spread xenophobia among voters.
Other factors also influenced
- Article 50 of the Treaty of Lisbon, which provides for the freedom of a member to leave the bloc voluntarily and unilaterally;
- the non-cohesion of the Labor Party against Brexit;
- the great participation in the plebiscite of the most conservative and elderly population;
- skepticism on the part of the population who did not feel the economic benefits of the European Union, especially in England;
- the fact that the country’s financial contribution to the bloc is higher than the bloc’s spending with the United Kingdom;
- greater control of borders and national sovereignty over the decisions to be made;
- nationalist sentiment very present in the British territory by not adhering to the euro and only adopting minimum aspects of the Schengen Area, as in police and judicial cooperation;
- the Schengen Information System.
The Schengen Area was created in 1985 and integrated with the European Union in 1997 by the Treaty of Amsterdam in order to guarantee the free movement of people and to abolish internal borders in favor of a single external border, which did not please the British.
With its creation, it was possible to adopt common procedures and rules on visas for short-stay visas, asylum applications, external border controls, cooperation and coordination between police services and judicial authorities as a means of ensuring security.
Consequences of Brexit
The first and important consequence of Brexit’s victory was the fall of Prime Minister David Cameron, who agreed to hold the popular referendum when he was on election campaign, even though he was a defender of No.
Cameron was replaced by Thereza May, Brexit’s defender, both being members of the Conservative Party. The Prime Minister is the one who was leading the process of leaving the United Kingdom of the European Union. However, on January 24, 2017, Thereza May suffered a major defeat in the Supreme Court decision that Parliament, not the government, should lead the Brexit lawsuit. Emphasizing that the Kingdom is entitled for two years to leave the economic bloc.
Other consequences are relevant, such as:
- the political-economic sovereignty of the country in the face of international relations;
- greater border control and expulsion of immigrants or refugees;
- difficulty for citizens of the United Kingdom and the European Union to move between countries, mainly workers;
- Scotland’s intention to hold a new plebiscite to decide on its permanence in the United Kingdom as it did in 2014, when independence was rejected by 55.3% of voters;
- possible crisis in the world economy in the face of market uncertainties with the future of the United Kingdom and the European Union;
- possible non-compliance by the United Kingdom with regard to the political, economic and environmental agreements entered into as a bloc member;
- serve as propaganda for Eurocene and xenophobic parties of members of the bloc, such as the National Le Pen Marine Front in France;
- greater financial and public independence of the country vis-à-vis the European Central Bank.
With the formation of Brexit, the United Kingdom will be out of the large consumer market of the economic bloc that will have 27 members and that allows the free circulation of goods and people. Therefore, it will have to negotiate new trade agreements with the European Union and with the other countries with which the economic bloc has preferential agreements.
The outflow of investment and skilled labor from the United Kingdom are also negative consequences for the country. Another context is that the country will leave the European Parliament, where it occupies 73 seats of the total of 751 deputies, and will not contribute more with the European Union.
However, Brexit economists argue that Britain will become stronger with sovereignty over its economic-financial and trade policies, and may fully exercise the right to enter into trade agreements with whomever it wishes without the bloc’s control or decisions, as with countries emerging agricultural exporters suffering from some form of impediment on the part of the European Union.
Other important points to note are that the United Kingdom has substantial reserves of natural gas and oil operated in the North Sea, in addition to being a major NATO and NATO member.