Throughout its discovery, Brazil underwent some regimes of government, among them: colonialism, imperialism, the establishment of the republic, two provisional military juntas, until arriving at presidentialism through direct voting.
In all, Brazil had 37 presidents . The first president of Brazil was Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca. To this day the majority of the presidents were men; with the exception of Dilma Vana Roussef, the 36th person to occupy Power as President of the Republic.
Presidents of Brazil
1. Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca : this Alagoan became president of Brazil on November 15, 1889, with the Proclamation of the Republic. The first president of Brazil occupied the position until 1891.
2. Marshal Floriano Peixoto : he was a deputy of Deodoro da Fonseca and was also from Alagoas. He took office in 1891 and remained in command of the country in 1894. Because of his strong wrist, he became known as Marshal de Ferro.
3. Prudente de Morais : After being governor of São Paulo, this Paulista became president of Brazil in 1894 and, for reasons of illness, vacated the post one year ahead of schedule in 1897. The year 1898 was conducted by the his deputy, Manuel Vitorino.
4. Campos Sales : from 1898 to 1902, Brazil was led by Campos Sales. Among his most famous acts is the implementation of Funding Loan, a policy to pay Brazil’s foreign debt, which was facing a serious crisis with coffee and rubber.
5. Rodrigues Alves : it was from 1902 to 1906 that Rodrigues Alves commanded Brazil. During his administration, the highlight was for the Vaccine Revolt, led by Osvaldo Cruz, who managed to immunize a large part of the population.
6. Affonso Penna: Between 1906 and 1909, Affonso Augusto Moreira Penna began the interiorization of Brazil, through the implantation of the Pantanal Train. In the last year of his term, he died, and his deputy, Nilo Peçanha, took office.
7. Nilo Peçanha: it was between 1909 and 1910. Some of the most important acts of his government were: the creation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Commerce and Industry, the Service of Protection to the Indians and the technical education in Brazil.
8. Marshal Hermes da Fonseca : Gaucho was in power between 1910 and 1914. They marked his administration: the creation of the presidential belt, the Revolt of Chibata and the War or Contestado.
9. Wenceslau Braz : from 1914 to 1918 he ruled Brazil. It was he who separated Paraná from Santa Catarina and under his government Brazil joined the First World War.
10. Delfim Moreira : the miner was president of Brazil between the years of 1918 to 1919. He was elected to the deputy of Rodrigues Alves, who died before taking office. For posterity, he left some changes in the Brazilian Civil Code and the reform of Acre.
11. Epitacio Pessoa : between 1919 and 1922, Brazil was in the hands of Epitacio Pessoa. Among his accomplishments is the creation of the Central Railroad of Brazil, actions to ease the drought of the Northeast, creation of universities and the first radio station in our country.
12. Artur Bernardes : Between 1922 and 1926, Arthur da Silva Bernardes was promoted to President of the Republic of Brazil. The miner made some changes in the national constitution, with respect to the state of siege, for example.
13. Washington Luis : from 1926 to 1930, he tried to stop the political crisis in Brazil, which maintained several political prisoners. He promoted economic reform, built new highways, and created aeronautics and the Federal Highway Police. After his administration, Julio Prestes was elected in 1930, but did not come to power thanks to a military coup that put Getúlio Vargas in power.
14. Getúlio Vargas : stayed from 1930 until 1945 and after 1951 until 54, the year in which he committed suicide.
15. José Linhares : was shortly in command of the nation, between 1945 and 1946. He was a judge of the Federal Supreme Court when he was summoned to take over the vacancy of Vargas, who had committed suicide.
16. Marshal Eurico Gaspar Dutra : from 1946 to 1951, Mato Grosso took the first steps towards the creation of the National Constituent Assembly, which was the mother of the Brazilian Constitution of 1946. He also built the Presidente Dutra Highway, which made the connection from São Paulo to Rio de Janeiro.
17. Getúlio Vargas : In his last management, Vargas created Petrobrás under the slogan “O Petroleo é Nosso”. This mandate ended tragically, committing suicide.
18. Café Filho : born in Natal, capital of Rio Grande do Norte, Café Filho was only a year ahead of the national presidency, because of his weak health.
19. Carlos Luz : this also was little time in the management of Brazil. Carlos Luz came in to replace Café Filho, but he also became ill.
20. Nereu Ramos : other interim management. Nereu Ramos stayed from 1955 to 1956 as president of Brazil.
21. Juscelino Kubitschek : From 1956 to 1961, the JK miner encouraged the car industry and built Brasilia.
22. Jânio Quadros : he stayed only seven months as president of Brazil and then resigned. In that short time, he created the Xingu National Park.
23. Ranieri Mazzilli : assumed the presidency of Brazil in two periods. The first in 1961, when Janius Quadros resigned, and then when Goulart went to China.
24. João Goulart: From 1961 to 1964, Goulart became president of Brazil. He already had the experience of being twice vice president in the governments of JK and Jânio Quadros. The military coup took him out of power.
25: Ranieri Mazzilli: he stayed only 13 days in the Presidency of the Republic, between April 2 and 15, 1964, when a military coup took him out of power.
26. Castelo Branco : from 1964 to 1967, Castelo Branco instituted the Institutional Acts that marked the hardest period for Brazilian democracy. To this end, he also established the National Intelligence Service and arrested, detained and persecuted political parties.
27. Costa e Silva : this gaucho was from 1967 until 1969. This military man established the AI5 and commanded one of the hardest times of the dictatorship of Brazil. It was he who ordered the imprisonment and execution of political enemies, censorship of the press and cassation of mandates.
28. Garristazu Medici : from 1969 to 1974, Medici promoted the “Brazilian miracle” period that the economy strengthened, but not without repressing the population and more independent institutions.
29. Ernesto Geisel : From 1974 to 1979, Geisel left his name for Brazilian history, when he ended AI5, which included censorship of the press and persecution of politicians and parties.
30. João Figueiredo : Between 1979 and 1985, João Figueiredo was from Rio and faced problems to govern on behalf of the military that did not conform to the country’s opening to democracy. Tancredo Neves was elected president to take over after João Figueiredo, but did not take over, as he died.
31. José Sarney : For five years, between 1985 and 1990, José Sarney ruled Brazil, he created an economic plan to combat inflation. He was the first civilian president since the dictatorship. Sarney placed Brazil in the Mercosur Treaty and created the Ministry of Culture.
32. Fernando Collor: two years were enough for Collor to leave the presidency of Brazil. He was elected by the first popular vote, but scandals of corruption made him resign.
33. Itamar Franco: became president of the republic between 1992 and 1995. Its administrative heritage is the privatizations and the creation of the Real Plan.
34. Fernando Henrique Cardoso : From 1995 and 2003, FHC ruled Brazil, being reelected. He continued Itamar Franco’s administration and privatized and strengthened the Real Plan (a creation of it) and indemnified relatives of political disappeared victims of the military regime.
35. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva : another president who stayed for two terms was Lula. From 2003 to 2011, Pernambuco reduced unemployment, inflation and increased GDP. Another mark of its management was the implementation of income transfer programs. From half of his government, he was accused of corruption.
36. Dilma Rousseff : Lula’s successor and leftist leader, the first woman president of Brazil, ruled for two terms between 2011 and 2016. Her management marked the creation of some social programs like Mais Médicos e Minha Casa, mine life. She did not complete her second term and was impeached on account of administrative impropriety.
37. Michel Temer : was Dilma Rousseff’s deputy and, with his departure, he assumed the presidency of the Republic. Accused of coup plotter, he is leading some important and controversial reforms, such as Labor and Welfare. He is also accused of corruption.