There are scholars who say that the history of organized crime in Brazilwas still born in colonial times, when Portugal issued a decree punishing those who committed offenses in the country with a one-way ticket to the Land of Vera Cruz, as it was called Brazil.
But to conclude that such crime was organized at that time is not real. Systematization began to happen only during the military dictatorship, when political prisoners began to live with common criminals inside the chains and to share guerrilla techniques.
It was at this time that one of the largest criminal factions in Brazil began, the Comando Vermelho, which honors the color of the guerrillas. Over time, other organizations have emerged and experts claim that today there are approximately 80 criminal factions.
Organized crime in Brazil and its facilitating factors
One of the factors that favors the existence of organized crime in Brazil is free trade and the globalization of the economy. An article by Luiz Alcione Gonçalves, in the Legal Scope website, states that “these factors facilitate the formatting of these organizations by the good conditions of financial manipulation and communication, as well as money laundering through companies with legal facade, such as charities, non-profit foundations, real estate offices, travel and tourism agencies, legal and advisory offices. “
Currently, organized crime functions as a parallel power whose drug trafficking is the most important source of financial survival for these factions . Drug trafficking is estimated to be moving more than $ 300 billion a year around the world.
Gonçalves points out 15 characteristics of organized crime described in the doctoral thesis of researcher Guaracy Mingardi, in 1996. These are: practices of illegal activities; clandestine activity; organizational hierarchy; profit forecasting; division of labor; use of violence; symbiosis with the state; illicit goods; business planning; use of intimidation; sale of illicit services; clientelistic relations; presence of the law of silence; monopoly of violence and territorial control.
Another aggravating factor for the development of organized crime in Brazil is the certainty of impunity . Legislation gaps allow the most powerful leaders not to be punished or to escape convictions easily.
Other grounds for the spread of crime
There are other reasons that make Brazil a free territory for the development of organized crime. One is that our country is strategically located between the largest drug producing countries and the European continent .
This causes Brazil to be routed to transport part of the drug produced in Peru and Bolivia destined for the old continent. To do this, narcotics cross our territory through air, water and land.
This facility also occurs because of the size of Brazil’s territorial boundaries . In all, the country borders on 9 nations, among them the largest drug producers in the world. There are almost 17 thousand km of borders that make it difficult for the police to monitor the Federal Police. This boosts the drug business that is the mainstay of organized crime.
Crime organized at war
Although organized crime functions as real empires and highly profitable businesses. There is a state of constant war between the factions that make up this universe.
Around here, conflicts between the CCP, the First Command of the Capital, and the CV, the Red Command, are common. They wage war on each other for the conquest of territories for the sale of drugs .
The constant conflicts between the factions end up taking on gigantic proportions, with massacres in prisons, community shootings, deaths of innocent people, depredation of public and private estates, among other urban and social problems caused by the internal war of organized crime.
The conflict between the factions that form the organized crime involves a lot of money. Only the PCC has about 10,000 men and annually moves 200 million a year.
Another worsening of this war is the existence of corruption within some organs that should repress the actions of organized crime. Attention is drawn to the activities of militias of paramilitary groups, formed by police officers, penitentiary agents and vigilantes . They charge population fees to provide supposed protection within traffic-dominated communities.
A recent study revealed that of the more than 90 favelas in Rio de Janeiro, 18% of them have illegal militias, coordinated even by politicians and community leaders.
But the crime is not limited to the state of Rio de Janeiro, despite being the epicenter of organized crime in Brazil . There are already foci of the organizations practically in all the Brazilian states, mainly inside the prisons. States with Ceará, located in the Brazilian Northeast, is becoming an important arm of the organizations for its privileged location, closer to Europe.
The same happens in the state of Amazonas, because of its proximity to countries in North America, such as the United States, the world’s largest consumer of narcotics.